Salt is always used in
not only on account of its flavor, which destroys the insipid raw state
of the flour, but because it makes the dough rise better.
Too small a
yeast, or insufficient time allowed for the dough to rise, will cause
bread to be heavy.
must be good and
fresh if the bread is to be digestible and nice. Stale yeast produces,
instead of vinous fermentation, an acetous fermentation, which flavors
the bread and makes it disagreeable. A poor, thin yeast produces an
fermentation, the result being a heavy, unwholesome loaf.
with milk, the
milk should be boiled—not simply scalded, but heated to boiling over
water—then set aside to cool before mixing. Simple heating will not
bread from turning sour in the rising, while boiling will act as a
So the milk should be thoroughly scalded, and should be used when it is
just blood warm.
the sponge or the
dough be permitted to overwork itself—that is to say, if the mixing and
kneading be neglected when it has reached the proper point for
bread will probably be the consequence in warm weather, and bad bread
any. The goodness will also be endangered by placing it so near a fire
as to make any part of it hot, instead of maintaining the gentle and
degree of heat required for its due fermentation.
will also most
likely be the result of making the dough very hard and letting it
quite cold, particularly in winter.
certain way of
spoiling dough is to leave it half made, and to allow it to become cold
before it is finished. The other most common causes of failure are
yeast which is no longer sweet, or which has been frozen, or has had
liquid poured over it.
As a general
rule, the oven
for baking bread should be rather quick and the heat so regulated as to
penetrate the dough without hardening the outside. The oven door should
not be opened after the bread is put in until the dough is set or has
firm, as the cool air admitted will have an unfavorable effect upon it.
should rise and
the bread begin to brown after about fifteen minutes, but only
Bake from fifty to sixty minutes and have it brown, not black or whitey
brown, but brown all over when well baked.
bread is baked,
remove the loaves immediately from the pans and place them where the
will circulate freely around them, and thus carry off the gas which has
been formed, but is no longer needed.
the bread in
the pan or on a pin table to absorb the odor of the wood.
If you like
that are crisp do not cover the loaves; but to give the soft, tender,
consistency which many prefer, wrap them while still hot in several
of bread-cloth. When cold put them in a bread box or stone jar,
the cloth, as that absorbs the moisture and gives the bread an
taste and odor.
bread box well covered and carefully cleansed
from crumbs and stale pieces. Scald and dry it thoroughly every two or
A yard and
a half square of coarse table linen makes the best
bread-cloth. Keep in good supply; use them for no other purpose.
water in making wheat bread; in that case the flour must be scalded and
allowed to cool before the yeast is added—then proceed as above. Bread
made in this manner keeps moist in summer much longer than when made in
the usual mode.
or store bought fresh yeast is generally preferred to any other. Compressed
yeast, and dry yeast as now sold in most grocery stores, also makes
sweet bread, and is a much quicker process, and can always be made fresh every day.